TitleAmmonia Toxicity Degrades Animal Health , Growth
Publication TypeMagazine Article
Year of Publication2013
AuthorsBoyd, CE
MagazineGlobal Aquaculture Advocate
Issue Number2
Pagination40 - 43
Date Published2013

Ammonia nitrogen occurs in aquaculture systems as a waste product of protein metabolism by aquatic animals and degradation of organic matter, or in nitrogen. Exposure can reduce growth and increase susceptibility to diseases in aquatic species. Ammonia nitrogen concentrations vary with time of day, water depth and temperature, and increase as biomass and feed input increase. The best management is conservative stocking and feeding rates that minimize ammonia nitrogen and avoid excessive phytoplankton blooms pH.

Notice of Publication Number

NOP 14-A14 (English)